Understanding Code Outside The Computer

We typically use codes to serve 3 main purposes: communication, clarification or obfuscation. In order to achieve these objectives we define a set of rules. When we create a set of rules, we create an algorithmAn algorithm is a step-by-step procedure or program that defines how to do a specific process.


Morse Code:

Is a standardized set of rules used to communicate words through either short or long pulses.



Genetic Code:

Genetic information is encoded in sequences of DNA. These are sets of biological rules whereby the various combinations of build different types of protein. More specifically, Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that encodes the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and many viruses.



Legal Codes:

The California Health and Safety Code is a set of written laws that define rules set forth for the State Legislature.



Secret Codes:
Cryptography is the practice of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties. By agreeing on a set of rules for translating the coded information and keeping it secret, parties are able to pass secret messages between them right in front of the very people they want to keep the messages hidden from. For example, a numbers station is a type of shortwave radio station characterized by their unusual broadcasts, which consist of spoken words, but mostly numbers, often created by artificially generated voices reading streams of numbers, words, letters, tunes or Morse code. The best known of the number stations was the “Lincolnshire Poacher”, which is thought to have been run by the British Secret Intelligence Service.


Knitting Instructions:
Knitting is a method by which thread or yarn is used to create a cloth. Knitted fabric consists of a number of consecutive rows of loops, called stitches. As each row progresses, a new loop is pulled through an existing loop. The active stitches are held on a needle until another loop can be passed through them. This process eventually results in a fabric, often used for garments.

Casting On

Bibliography / Further Resources:
FORM+CODE by Casey Reas, Chandler McWilliams and LUST
(This book informed this webpage and is highly recommended.)